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  • 初三英语复习教案

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    复习从句

    共需5课时

     

    一、状语从句

    【考点直击】

    1. 时间状语从句

    2. 条件状语从句

    3. 原因状语从句

    4. 结果状语从句

    5. 比较状语从句

    6. 目的状语从句

    7. 让步状语从句

    8. 地点状语从句

    【名师点睛】

    用来修饰主句中的动词,副词和形容词的从句叫状语从句。根据其含义状语从句可分为时间状语从句,地点状语从句,条件状语从句, 原因状语从句,结果状语从句,比较状语从句,目的状语从句,让步状语从句。

    1. 时间状语从句

    (1)时间状语从句常用when, as, while, before, after, since, till, until, as soon as等连词来引导。例如:

    It was raining hard when got to school yesterday.

    While he was doing his homework, the telephone rang.

    As he walked along the lake, he sang happily.

    He had learned a little Chinese before he came to China.

    After he finished middle school, he went to work in a factory.

    (2)在时间状语从句里,通常不用将来时态,用现在时态表示将来的动作或状态。例如:

    I’ll ring you up as soon as I get to New York.

    I will tell him everything when he comes back.

    He won’t believe it until he sees it with his own eyes.

    (3)在带有till或until引导的时间状语从句的主从复合句里,如果主句用肯定式,其含义是“一直到……时”,谓语动词只能用延续性动词。如果主句用否定式,其含义是“直到……才……”, “在……以前不……”, 谓语动词可用瞬间动词。例如:

    The young man read till the light went out.

    Let’s wait until the rain stops.

         We won’t start until Bob comes.

         Don’t get off until the bus stops.

    2. 条件状语从句

    (1)条件状语从句通常由if, unless引导。例如:

    What shall we do if it snows tomorrow?

    Don’t leave the building unless I tell you to.

    (2)在条件状语从句里,谓语动词通常用现在时态表示将来的动作或状态。例如:

    I’ll help you with your English if am free tomorrow.

    He won’t be late unless he is ill.

    (3)“祈使句 + and (or)+ 陈述句” 在意思上相当于一个带有条件状语从句的复合句。例如:

    Hurry up, or you’ll be late.

    =If you don’t hurry up, you’ll be late.

    Study hard and you will pass the exam.

    =If you study hard, you will pass the exam.

    3. 原因状语从句

    (1)原因状语从句通常由because, since, as引导。例如:

    He didn’t come to school because he was ill.

    As it is raining, we shall not go the zoo.

    Since you can’t answer the question, I’ll ask someone else.

    (2)because表示直接原因,语气最强。Because引导的原因状语从句多放在主句之后。回答由why提出的问题,只能用because。As和since语气较弱,一般用来表示明显的原因。由as和since引导的原因状语从居多放在句首。例如:

    ------Why aren’t going there?

    ------Because I don’t want to.

    As he has no car, he can’t get there easily.

    Since we have no money, we can’t buy it.

    (3)because和so不能同用在一个句子里。

    4. 结果状语从句

    (1)结果状语从句由so…that, such…that, so that引导。例如:

    He is so poor that he can’t buy a bike for his son.

    She is such a good teacher that everybody likes her.

    My pencil fell under the desk, so that I couldn’t see it.

    (2)so…that语such...that可以互换。例如:

    在由so...that引导的结果状语从句中,so是副词,与形容词连用。其结构是: “...so + 形容词(副词)+ that + 从句”。例如:

    He was so glad that he couldn’t say a word.

    The hall is so big that it can hold 2,000 people.

    Mother lives so far away that we hardly ever see her.

    在由such…that引导的结果状语从句中,such是形容词,它修饰的可以是单数或复数可数名词,也可以是不可数名词;名词前面可以带形容词,也可不带。如果是单数可数名词,前面需加不定冠词a或an。例如:

    It was such a hot day that nobody wanted to do anything.

    He had such long arms that he could almost touch the ceiling.

    He made such rapid progress that he did very well in the mid-term.

          有时上述两种结构是可以互换的。例如:

    It was such a wonderful film that all of us wanted to see it again.

    =The film was so wonderful that all of us wanted to see it again.

    It is such an important match that nobody wants to miss it.

    =The match is so important that nobody wants to miss it.

    (3)如果名词前由many, much, little, few等词修饰时,只能用so, 不用such。例如:

    Soon there were so many deer that they ate up all the wild roses.

    He has so little time that he can’t go to the cinema with you.

    5. 比较状语从句

    比较状语从句通常由as…as, 比较级 + than…等连词引导。例如:

    Tom runs faster than John does.

    This classroom is as big as that one.

    6. 目的状语从句

    (1)目的状语从句通常由 so that, in order that引导。例如:

    We started early so that we could catch the first train.

    He studies hard so that he could work better in the future.

    We used the computer in order that we might save time.

    (2)so that既可引导目的状语从句,又可引导结果状语从句。区别这两种从句的办法有两个:1)目的状语从句里往往带有情态动词can, could, may, might等。2)从意思上看,目的状语从句往往表示的目的很明确。例如:

    Speak clearly so that they may understand you. (目的状语从句)

    Jack is badly ill so that he has to rest.        (结果状语从句)

    7. 让步状语从句

    (1)让步状语从句通常由although, though等连词引导。例如:

    Though he is young, he knows a lot.

    Although I am tired, I must go on working.

    (2)although(though)不能用在同一个句子中。例如:

    我们不能说:Though it was raining hard, but he still went out.

    应该说:Though it was raining hard, he still went out.或It was raining hard, but he still went out.

    8. 地点状语从句

         地点状语从句常常由where来引导。例如:

         Go where you like.

         Where there is a will, there is a way.

     

    二、定语从句

    【考点扫描】

    中考对定语从句的考查主要集中在以下几个方面:

    1.定语从句的功用和结构

    2.关系代词和关系副词的功用

    3.各个关系代词和关系副词的具体用法

    考查的主要形式是单项填空、完型填空、短文填空和完成句子。阅读理解和书面表达肯定也要用到定语从句。

    【重点精讲】

    一. 定语从句的功用和结构

        在复合句中,修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫做定语从句。被定从句修饰的词叫做先行词。定语从句必须放在先行词之后。引导定语从句的关联词有关系代词和关系副词。例如:

    This is the present that he gave me for my birthday.

    Do you know everybody who came to the party?

    I still remember the night when I first came to the village?

    This is the place where Chairman Mao once lived.

    二. 关系代词和关系副词的功用

        关系代词和关系副词用来引导定于从句,在先行词和定语从句之间起纽带作用,使二者联系起来。关系代词和关系副词又在定语从句中充当一个成分。关系待客做主语,宾语,定语,关系副词可作状语。

    1. 作主语:关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词的人称和数须和先行词一致。例如:

    I don’t like people who talk much but do little.

    The cars which are produced in Hubei Province sell very well.

    2. 作宾语:

    She is the person that I met at the school gate yesterday.

    The book that my grandmother gave me is called “The Great Escape”.

    3. 作定语

    关系代词whose在定语从句中作定语用。例如:

    What’s the name of the young man whose sister is a doctor?

    The girl whose father is a teacher studies very hard.

    4. 作状语

    I’ll never forget the day when I first came to Beijing.

    This is the house where I was born.

    三. 各个关系代词和关系副词的具体用法

    1. who 指人,在定语从句中作主语。例如:

    The person who broke the window must pay for it.

    The boy who is wearing the black jacket is very clever.

    2. whom指人,在定语从句中作宾语。例如:

    Do you know the young man (whom) we met at the gate?

    Mr Lee (whom) you want to see has come.

    3. whose 指人,在定语从句中作定语。例如:

    The girl whose mother is ill is staying at home today.

    I know the boy whose father is a professor.

    4. which指物,在定语从中作主语或宾语。例如:

    A dictionary is a book which gives the meaning of words.

    Here is the book (which) the teacher mentioned yesterday.

    5. that多指物,有时也指人,在定语从句中作主语或宾语。例如:

    I’ve read the newspaper that(which) carries the important news.

    Who is the person that is reading the newspaper over there?

    6. when 指时间,在定语从句中作状语。例如:

         I’ll never forget the time when we worked on the farm.

         He arrived in Beijing on the day when I left.

    7. where 指地点,在定语从句中作状语。例如:

         This is the house where we lived last year.

         The factory where his father works is in the east of the city.

    四. 关系代词 whom, which 在定语从句中作介词宾语时,可以和介词一起放于先行词与定语从句之间,有时为了关系紧凑也可以将 whom 与 which 与先行词紧挨着书写,而将介词置于定语从句的后面,如:
    That was the room in which we had lived for ten years. = That was the room 

    which we had lived in for ten years.

    五. 具体使用时还要注意下列问题:

    1. 只能使用that,不用which 的情况:

    (1) 先行词是all, few, little, nothing, everything, anything 等不定代词时。例如:

            All that he said is true. 

         (2) 先行词被only, no, any, all,等词修饰时。例如:

            He is the only foreigner that has been to that place. 

    (3) 先行词是序数词或被序数词修饰的词。例如:

    He was the second (person) that told me the secret.

    (4) 先行词是形容词最高级或被形容词最高级修饰的词。

    This is the best book (that) I have read this year.

    (5) 先行词既包括人又包括物时。例如:

    He talked about the people and the things he remembered.

    2. 只能用which,不用that 的情况:

    (1) 在非限制性定语从中。例如:

           The meeting was put off, which was exactly what we wanted.

         (2) 定语从句由介词+关系代词引导,先行词是物时。例如:

           The thing about which he is talking is of great importance.


     
    三、宾语从句

    【考点扫描】

    中考对宾语从句的考查主要集中在以下几个方面:

    1. 引导宾语从句的连词和代词选择;

    2. 宾语从句的语序;

    3. 宾语从句的时态。

    考查的主要形式是单项填空、完型填空、短文填空和完成句子。阅读理解和书面表达肯定也要用到宾语从句。

    【重点精讲】

    一. 宾语从句的种类

    宾语从句是一种名词性从句,在句中作及物动词的宾语,或介词的宾语,或

    形容词的宾语。根据引导宾语从句的不同连词,宾语从句可分为三类。

    1. 由that引导的宾语从句。That只有语法作用,没有实在的意义,在口语

    和非正式文体中可以省略。例如:

    He said (that) he wanted to stay at home.

    She doesn’t know (that) she is seriously ill.

    I am sure (that) he will succeed.

    2. 由连接代词who, whom, whose, what, which和连接副词when, where, why, how引导的宾语从句。这些连接代词和连接副词在宾语从句中充当某个成分。例如:

    Do you know who (whom) they are waiting foe?

    He asked whose handwriting was the best.

    Can you tell me where the No.3 bus stop is?

    I don’t know why the train is late.

    3. 由if或whether引导的宾语从句。If和whether在句中的意思是“是否”。例如:

    I want to know if (whether) he lives there.

    He asked me whether (if) I could help him.

    二. 宾语从句的语序

    宾语从句的语序应为陈述句的语序。例如:

    I hear (that) physics isn’t easy.

    I think (that) you will like this school soon.

    Can you tell me how I can get to zoo?

    Please tell me when we’ll have the meeting.

    三. 宾语从句的时态

    1. 如果主句的时态是一般现在时,宾语从句该用什麽时态就用什麽时态。

    如:

    I don’t think (that) you are right.

    Please tell us where he is.

    Can you tell me how I can get to the railway station?

    2. 如果主句的时态是一般过去时,宾语从句只能用相应的过去时态(一般过去时, 过去进行时, 过去将来时,过去完成时)。例如:

    He asked what time it was.

    He told me that he was preparing for the sports meet.

    He asked if you had written to Peter.

    He said that he would go back to the U.S. soon.

    3. 如果宾语从句所陈述的是客观真理,其时态常用一般现在时。例如:

    Our teacher said that January is the first month of the year.

    Scientists have proved that the earth turns around the sun.

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